A Survey of Calibration Methods for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays


Optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST HMDs) are a major output medium for Augmented Reality, which have seen significant growth in popularity and usage among the general public due to the growing release of consumer-oriented models, such as the Microsoft Hololens. Unlike Virtual Reality headsets, OST HMDs inherently support the addition of computer-generated graphics directly into the light path between a user's eyes and their view of the physical world. As with most Augmented and Virtual Reality systems, the physical position of an OST HMD is typically determined by an external or embedded 6-Degrees-of-Freedom tracking system. However, in order to properly render virtual objects, which are perceived as spatially aligned with the physical environment, it is also necessary to accurately measure the position of the user's eyes within the tracking system's coordinate frame. For over 20 years, researchers have proposed various calibration methods to determine this needed eye position. However, to date, there has not been a comprehensive overview of these procedures and their requirements. Hence, we survey the field of calibration methods for OST HMDs. Specifically, we provide insights into the fundamentals of calibration techniques, and presents an overview of both manual and automatic approaches, as well as evaluation methods and metrics.


methods overview SPAAM method


Jens Grubert, Yuta Itoh, Kenneth Moser & J. Edward Swan II. A Survey of Calibration Methods for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays. In IEEE Transactions of Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), 24(9), 2017, pp.2649-2662. arxiv preprint | DOI